Stem cells are a sort of cell that can develop into many other types of cells in the body. Researchers then learned that stem cells may be found in a variety of other tissues, such as the mouth and teeth. This is why they are known as dental and oral stem cells.
What is dental and oral stem cells
Stem cells are regeneration agents in the body that have the ability to proliferate and regenerate themselves in order to maintain the body functioning properly. Additionally, stem cells can be classified as totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent, or oligopotent/monopotent.
Dental stem cells have emerged as a result of the rapid development of dental stem cells. This means that these cells have the ability to evolve into several types of cells seen in teeth, such as those that create enamel, dentin, and pulp. Then, the stem cells found in the teeth are divided into two groups, including.
- Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) which consist of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) and adult dental pulp stem cells (ADPSCs).
- Stem Cells From The Dental Follicle (DFSCs), Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (PDLSCs) and Human Gingival-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (GMSCs).
Many experiments have been conducted to date in order to create Mesenchymal stem cells with Osteogenic potential. The potential of stem cells to develop tissue engineering requires more study due to the treatment applications, which are still in their infancy.
Therefore, tooth decay can be repaired and renewed using dental stem cells. The outer covering of teeth, called enamel, normally cannot grow back after being injured. Furthermore, when stem cells are present, dentists do not need to heal tooth decay with synthetic materials (metals, ceramics, and resins).
Cellular and Molecular Life Science researchers demonstrated that stem cells can be used as tooth replacements using 3D models of stem cells. These researchers also stated that employing stem cells obtained from tooth follicles to create 3D models allows them to develop more dental stem cells in the lab.
Oral stem cells are often referred to as oral mucosal stem cells. These stem cells are similar to the stem cells discussed above in that they can differentiate into numerous cells in the mouth, such as the lining of the mouth, salivary glands, and gums.
In regenerative medicine, the function of oral mucosal stem cells has been demonstrated (tissue engineering and wound healing). Moreover, dental and oral stem cells have the potential to be employed to treat additional illnesses such as periodontal disease and mouth cancer.
The detection of stem cells in both locations should be simple because to naturally lost or surgically removed teeth. The cells will then be frozen and stored without losing their ability to grow and renew.
To put it another way, this tooth tissue storage can be thought of as a biobank. Dentists can thus use the tissue in the future if oral health problems arise. However, further research is needed to discover and comprehend the potential of oral stem cells in order to find new methods for successful oral care.